O dealkylation. FtmOx1 is a nonheme iron (NHFe) endoperoxidase, catalyzing three disparate reactions, endoperoxidation, alcohol dehydrogenation, and dealkylation, under in vitro conditions; the diversity complicates its mechanistic studies. In this study, we use two substrate analogues to simplify the FtmOx1-catalyzed reaction to either a dealkylation or an alcohol dehydrogenation …

Currently, the molecular mechanism for the dealkylation of propisochlor, metolachlor and pretilachlor by microorganisms remains unknown. The strain Rhodococcus sp. B2 was isolated from a rice field in which pretilachlor had been applied for many years. Strain B2 can degrade pretilachlor via an initial reaction of O-dealkylation.

O dealkylation. Dealkylation. Although mostly a matter of chemical semantics, oxidative N-dealkylation is a process in which a small alkyl group is cleaved from the main amine compound, whereas in oxidative deamination the main amine compound is oxidized with the loss of ammonia (in the case of a primary amine) or a small primary amine fragment (from a more complex secondary amine).

May 20, 2022 · N-dealkylation, the removal of an N-alkyl group from an amine, is an important chemical transformation which provides routes for the synthesis of a wide range of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, bulk and fine chemicals. N-dealkylation of amines is also an important in vivo metabolic pathway in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Identification and synthesis of drug metabolites such as N-dealkylated ...

The mechanism of amine N-dealkylation by CYP is an interesting and elusive topic in CYP mechanistic field. As depicted in Scheme 2, the overall reaction of CYP-catalyzed N-dealkylation of amines proceeds by two processes: C α –H hydroxylation and subsequent C–N bond fission to release formaldehyde.Cytochromes P450 catalyze most of the rate-limiting (with turnovers rates typically in the ten to a few hundreds per minute range) and completely irreversible reactions in their biosynthetic pathways, usually regio-specific and stereospecific oxygenations or oxidations, but also more complex reactions such as dealkylation, deamination ...

A fluorescent assay would be very useful for the identification of nonnatural ligands in high-throughput inhibition assays. Because of the ease and sensitivity of alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylation assays, four different alkoxyresorufins were evaluated as substrates. Wild-type BM3 showed extremely low activity toward all four alkoxyresorufins tested.On the other hand, phenacetin O-deethylation and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation were catalyzed both by CYP1A2 and by CYP2C6. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylation and pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation were also catalyzed by CYP1A2 in addition to CYP2B1. Bufuralol 1′-hydroxylation was extensively catalyzed by CYP2D2 but also by CYP2C6 and CYP2C11.10 Ağu 2001 ... Cyclopropylamines inactivate cytochrome P450 enzymes which catalyze their oxidative N-dealkylation. A key intermediate in both processes is ...The O-dealkylation of 7-ethoxycoumarin by the BM3m2 mutant (Y51F/F87A) was utilized as a proof of concept for this approach. The EY platform system was then shown to be compatible with multiple P450 BM3 variants known to produce human drug metabolites [12] as well as several human P450 enzymes.May 20, 2022 · N-dealkylation, the removal of an N-alkyl group from an amine, is an important chemical transformation which provides routes for the synthesis of a wide range of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, bulk and fine chemicals. N-dealkylation of amines is also an important in vivo metabolic pathway in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Identification and synthesis of drug metabolites such as N-dealkylated ... The two hydrolysis TPs of BBOEP and BBOEHEP were degraded via O-dealkylation at the phosphate or butoxyethyl moieties of TBOEP, respectively, and DNBP was identified as the hydrolysis TP of TNBP. For TPHP, except for DPHP, monophenyl phosphate (MPHP) was also detected as an addition TP via hydrolysis of DPHP.The main metabolic biotransformation of TPN171 was mono-oxidation (hydroxylation and N-oxidation), dehydrogenation, N-dealkylation, O-dealkylation, amide hydrolysis, glucuronidation, and acetylation. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) mainly catalyzed the formation of metabolites, and CYP2E1 and CYP2D6 were involved in the oxidative metabolism of ... O-Dealkylation. Overview; List of Reagents. Boron/Aluminium reagents; Trimethylsilyl iodide; Hydrogenolysis; Oxidation DDQ/CAN; Acids; Thiols/Methionine; Metal Halides; Biocatalysis; Metal –catalysed ether cleavage ; Iodocyclohexane ; Phosphine reagents ; Amine bases /alkoxides ; Hydride reagents; Thermal Methods; Venn Diagram

Among the 27 cytochrome P450s (CYPs) of Nocardia farcinica IFM10152, three CYPs have been identified as having O-dealkylation catalytic activity.Of the two that encode CYP154 subfamilies, the one encoded by the nfa22930 gene showed distinct O-dealkylation and subsequent hydroxylation of formononetin.Dec 8, 2010 · Identification of which Nocardia CYP proteins had O-dealkylation activity was performed by 7-ethoxycoumarin activity assay that detects fluorescence upon removal of the ethyl group at the ethyl-ether bond. 7-Ethoxycoumarin and its corresponding product, 7-hydroxycoumarin, were readily separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and detected with strong fluorescence based on different R f ... N-Dealkylation is a frequently encountered metabolic reaction. It is often responsible for the production of the major metabolite obtained from an N-alkyl ...The major pathways for these substrates include oxidation, dealkylation, nitroreduction and hydroxylation. These enzymes account for about 30% of the hepatic and 70% of the gut wall P450 content . This subfamily in humans is controlled by four genes, CYP 3A3, 3A4, 3A5 and 3A7. The CYP3A4 is the most common and abundant cytochrome subfamily in ...

The P450-catalyzed O-dealkylation reaction sustainably maintained its turnover with the continuous supply of photoregenerated NADPH. Visible light-driven, non-enzymatic …

J. Nutr. 128, 220–223). Menadione (either from dietary supplements or from microbial degradation of phylloquinone) can be alkylated by a process that uses as the alkyl donor geranyl pyrophosphate, farnesyl pyrophosphate, or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. The main product of the alkylation of menadione is MK- 4.

O-dealkylation: It is accepted that P450 catalyzed O-dealkylation reactions proceed by the two-step hydrogen atom abstraction/oxygen rebound mechanism similar to aliphatic hydroxylations. In the first step, the enzyme removes a hydrogen atom from the carbon adjacent to the oxygen (Hydrogen atom transfer, HAT), to generate a neutral carbon radical. O-dealkylation, S-dealkylation, Oxidation of Double bonds. O-dealkylation is a common. Click the card to flip 👆. metabolic pathway for ethers. Need Carbon next to oxygen. Methyl groups are much easier to cleave than longer alkyl chains. Slide 2 to 6 Drug Metabolism Feb 21st. Click the card to flip 👆. 1 / 30.Based on the previous studies on biological metabolism of OPEs, Hou et al. (2016) summarized five major metabolic pathways of OPEs in phase-I and phase-II metabolic processes, including O-dealkylation, hydroxylation, oxidative dechlorination, oxidation, and conjugation.Mar 4, 2021 · Currently, the molecular mechanism for the dealkylation of propisochlor, metolachlor and pretilachlor by microorganisms remains unknown. The strain Rhodococcus sp. B2 was isolated from a rice field in which pretilachlor had been applied for many years. Strain B2 can degrade pretilachlor via an initial reaction of O-dealkylation.

Definition. Drug metabolism is one of the main disposition pathways for about three-quarters of the known drugs [ 1 ], especially for lipophilic substances. Generally, drug-metabolizing enzymes convert their substrates to more polar products (drug metabolites), which thus present restricted reabsorption and distribution, and in some cases are ...Mar 3, 2020 · For example, CYP enzymes catalyze the metabolism of more than 75% of FDA approved drugs. 1 These enzymes catalyze reactions involving diverse substrates and form a diverse range of metabolites. 2 Examples of phase I reactions include hydroxylation, epoxidation, S- and N-oxidation, dealkylation, deamination, dehalogenation, and dehydrogenation ... Nonheme and heme iron monooxygenases participate in oxidative N-dealkylation reactions in nature, and high-valent oxoiron (IV) species have been invoked as active oxidants that …Demethylation. Demethylation is the chemical process resulting in the removal of a methyl group (CH 3) from a molecule. [1] [2] A common way of demethylation is the replacement of a methyl group by a hydrogen atom, resulting in a net loss of one carbon and two hydrogen atoms. The counterpart of demethylation is methylation .ABSTRACT. The alkylation process involves two competitive paths of O-and C-alkylation and achieving better selectivity for desired products is a very challenging problem.The development of new process for synthesis of O-methylated products of phenol and dihydric phenols is a subject of high industrial and academic interest.Alkyl phenyl ethers, …O-dealkylation, oxidative dehalogenation and oxidative aromati- zation are other important oxidation reactions at carbon centre. Drugs such as phenacetin ...Demethylation. Demethylation is the chemical process resulting in the removal of a methyl group (CH 3) from a molecule. [1] [2] A common way of demethylation is the replacement of a methyl group by a hydrogen atom, resulting in a net loss of one carbon and two hydrogen atoms. The counterpart of demethylation is methylation .Halogen dealkylation mirrors O-dealkylation both in terms of mechanism and the commonality of the process, that is, while an aliphatic halogen substituent is not a common structural component, virtually any drug that contains a C–H bond adjacent to a halogen atom will be subject to cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidative dehalogenation. Halogen ...We analyzed catalytic activity of cell-free synthesized P450 BM3 monooxygenase variant (Y51F/F87A, BM3m2) in the presence of key components for NADPH photoregeneration. The P450-catalyzed O-dealkylation reaction sustainably maintained its turnover with the continuous supply of photoregenerated NADPH. Visible light-driven, non-enzymatic NADPH ...1. Introduction. First described in 1878 the analgesic and antipyretic drug paracetamol (acetaminophen, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP) was little used clinically until the withdrawal of phenacetin from the market on account of observed renal toxicity.At the time of writing, APAP is probably the most widely available and commonly used drug worldwide and …In general, O-dealkylation is a preferential reaction for CYP1A and other CYPs rather than CYP3A4, while CYP3A4 has the extraordinary ability to mediate the aromatic hydroxylation 36. Notably, the exception is the development of hydroxylation-based fluorescent probe of CYP3A4 (CYP3A4-F1) recently reported by Ning et al. 36 .N-dealkylation is a major metabolism pathway for many amine drugs. The products formed from N-dealkylation and O-dealkylation are similar (amine or alcohol and a carbonyl compound). Therefore there is no controversy about what products are formed. The controversy is how these metabolites are formed. Oxidation of Alkylamines R2N CH3 1 R2N CH2 OH ... 5 Tem 2020 ... ... dealkylation O-dealkylation Deamination N-oxidation S-Oxidation Desulfuration dehydrogenations reduction hydrolysis Phase 1 reactions ...The N-dealkylation product of astemizole, norastemizole, is a minor product of CYP3A4 metabolism (64,68) and has only been obtained so far using chimeras of ...heteroatom oxygenation and dealkylation, epoxida-tion, desaturation, heme destruction, and other reac-tions. Another approach to understandingcatalysis in-volves analysis of the more general catalytic cycle, including substrate specificity, because complex pat-terns of cooperativity are observed with several P450s.Four major biotransformations, including aliphatic C-hydroxylation, aromatic C-hydroxylation, N-dealkylation and O-dealkylation, were involved. For validation, the overall accuracies of all four biotransformations exceeded 0.95. For receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, each of these models gave a significant area under curve (AUC ...alkylation: ( al'ki-lā'shŭn ), Substitution of an alkyl radical for a hydrogen atom; for example, introduction of a side chain into an aromatic compound.The dose was excreted mainly as the unchanged drug. Examination of the radioactive compounds present in the plasma, and excreted in the urine and feces indicate that there is little metabolism of cetirizine. One minor metabolite, formed by oxidative O-dealkylation of the cetirizine side chain, was detected in plasma and feces.

ABSTRACT. The alkylation process involves two competitive paths of O-and C-alkylation and achieving better selectivity for desired products is a very challenging problem.The development of new process for synthesis of O-methylated products of phenol and dihydric phenols is a subject of high industrial and academic interest.Alkyl phenyl ethers, …Inhibition of erythromycin, dextromethorphan and diazepam N-demethylation, testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation, midazolam 1-hydroxylation, triazolam 4-hydroxylation, nifedipine oxidation, cyclosporin oxidation, terfenadine C-hydroxylation and N-dealkylation and benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylation was evaluated at the apparent Km or S50 (for ... Download scientific diagram | Oxidative degradations. (a) Exemplary O-dealkylation shown for the metabolic degradation of phenacetin by CYP1A2. The oxygen activated by the enzyme attacks next to ... Therapeutically used nitrobenzodiazepines such as flunitrazepam are known to be extensively metabolized via N-dealkylation to active metabolites and via nitro reduction to the 7-amino compounds ...N-Dealkylation is a frequently encountered metabolic reaction. It is often responsible for the production of the major metabolite obtained from an N-alkyl ...The CYP2C9 is not the only “prevalent” catalyzing enzyme of antihypertensive drugs. Several antihypertensive drugs are substrates of CYP2D6, which catalyzes some of the beta-blockers such as propranolol. Pharmacophore studies have been also developed to include the hydroxylation O- and N- dealkylation caused by CYP2D6 [94, 99-102].The activity of the enzyme 7-ethoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase \(EROD) has been extensively employed in biomonitoring studies of persistent organic pollutants \(POPs) for more than a decade. ... Cytochrome P450 specificities of alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylation in human and rat liver. Biochem Pharmacol 1994;48:923-36. Sousa RL, Marletta MA. Inhibition ...

Abstract. N -dealkylation, the removal of an N -alkyl group from an amine, is an important chemical transformation which provides routes for the synthesis of a wide …Complexes 1 and 2 undergo ligand-assisted O-dealkylation by the same weakly basic phosphines, a reaction typically observed for complexes containing highly ...Results: The specific activities for human CYP isoforms included 7-ethoxyresorfin O-deethylation (CYP1A1), phenacetin O-deethylation (CYP1A2), coumarin 7-hydroxylation (CYP2A6), 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylation (CYP2B6), S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation (CYP2C9), S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylaion (CYP2C19), bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation (CYP2D6 ...Article The O-Dealkylation of 7-Ethoxycoumarin by Liver Microsomes. A Direct Fluorometric Test was published on January 1, 1972 in the journal Biological Chemistry (volume 353, issue 2).aromatic hydroxylation, aliphatic hydroxylation, N-dealkylation, O-dealkylation, and deamination. Among all, oxidation is the primary reaction, which leads to addition of 1 or more oxygen atom(s) to the parent drug.2 The CYP450-mediated oxidation pro-cess is chemically represented in the following scheme: NADPH1H 11O 21RH ! CYP450NADP …The O-dealkylation of ethers, while not encountered as frequently as N-dealkylation, is still a common metabolic pathway. Mechanistically, it is less controversial than N-dealkylation. It is generally believed to proceed by the HAT pathway (Figure 3). The product of the reaction is unstable, being a hemiacetal or hemiketal, which dissociates to ... Demethylation. Demethylation is the chemical process resulting in the removal of a methyl group (CH 3) from a molecule. [1] [2] A common way of demethylation is the replacement of a methyl group by a hydrogen atom, resulting in a net loss of one carbon and two hydrogen atoms. The counterpart of demethylation is methylation .O-Dealkylation : in o-dealkylation there is formation of hemiacetal or hemiketal as an intermediate which undergoes cleavage to form alcohol as drug metabolite. REDUCTION: Liver microsomes contain enzyme system that catalyzes reduction of azo and nitro. Compounds into primary amines.Dealkylations. Alkyl groups, especially bulky ones, are very lipophilic and often are attached to drugs through ' hetero' atoms, i.e. nitrogens, oxygens and ...dehydrogenation, hydroxylation, and N-dealkylation. Based on in vitro studies, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes are responsible for dehydrogenation and hydroxylation of aripiprazole, and -dealkylation is catalyzed by CYP3A4.N Aripiprazole is the predominant drugmoiety in the systemic circulation. At steady state,dehydro-As illustrated in Table 2, CYP carries out many different monooxygenations of pesticide substrates, such as epoxidation (aldrin), N-dealkylation (atrazine), O-dealkylation (chlorfenvinphos), sulfoxidation (phorate), and oxidative desulfuration (parathion) (Kulkarni and Hodgson 1980, 1984a,b). Substrates for the FMO are similarly diverse but all ...A methylene dioxy group in aromatic compounds is subject to O-dealkylation (e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (53) 78) (eqn [18].The process generates formic acid and the catechol metabolite 54 as final products. However, in the course of the reaction a portion of the enzyme can be inactivated by formation of what has been termed a metabolic intermediate (MI) complex 79,80 characterized by ...Block N-dealkylation, Use t-butyl (no hydrogens), or steric hinderance Similarly O-dealkylation Replace labile groups (Bioisosteres), Change ester to amide or heterocycle, look at ester bioisosteres Allylic or benzylic alkyl to halide or CF3 Introduction of deuterium to exploit deuterium isotope effectDealkylation Enzyme Induction / drug effects Ethyl Ethers / metabolism Kinetics Male Methods Methylcholanthrene / pharmacology* Microsomes, Liver / drug effects Microsomes, Liver / enzymology* ...O-Dealkylation. Overview; List of Reagents. Boron/Aluminium reagents; Trimethylsilyl iodide; Hydrogenolysis; Oxidation DDQ/CAN; Acids; Thiols/Methionine; Metal Halides; Biocatalysis; Metal –catalysed ether cleavage ; Iodocyclohexane ; Phosphine reagents ; Amine bases /alkoxides ; Hydride reagents; Thermal Methods; Venn DiagramSynthetic macrocycles in oncology. Pactritinib is a multi-kinase JAK2/FLT3 inhibitor used for the treatment of primary and secondary myelofibrosis, approved by the FDA in 2022. It’s extensively biotransformed to 12 metabolites through multiple mechanisms; oxidation, N -dealkylation, O -dealkylation, hydrolysis, and dehydrogenation. The oxidative O-dealkylation of 7-ethoxycoumarin J Biol Chem. 1984 Mar 10;259(5):3000-4. Authors G T Miwa, J S Walsh, A Y Lu. PMID: 6607922 Abstract The primary deuterium and tritium isotope effects on Vm/Km and on Vm have been measured for the O-deethylation of 7-ethoxycoumarin catalyzed by two purified isozymes of cytochrome P-450. ...O-Triflyl derivative 8, formed from NDMA and triflic anhydride, undergoes N-dealkylation to methylate toluene and give a mixture of xylenes. 35 Curiously, 3,4-dichlorothiophenol with either the O-methylated salt of N-nitrosodiethylamine (6a) or the O-ethylated salt of N-nitrosomethylethylamine (6b) in organic solvent resulted in the same ...

Moreover, the parent compound, donepezil, is the predominant elimination product in urine. The major metabolites of donepezil include M1 and M2 (via O-dealkylation and hydroxylation), M11 and M12 (via glucuronidation of M1 and M2, respectively), M4 (via hydrolysis) and M6 (via N-oxidation).

Dealkylation definition: (organic chemistry) The removal of alkyl groups from a compound.

N -dealkylation, the removal of an N -alkyl group from an amine, is an important chemical transformation which provides routes for the synthesis of a wide range of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, bulk and fine chemicals. N -dealkylation of amines is also an important in vivo metabolic pathway in the metabolism of xenobiotics.A metabolic assay analyzing 7-alkoxyresorufin-O-dealkylation showed specific CYP3A-dependent 7-benzyloxyresorufin oxidation (BROD). This was confirmed by testing other alkoxyresorufins (7-ethoxy-, 7-methoxy-, and 7-pentoxyresorufin) in mice and correlation of the data with testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation and a plethora of isoform …The two hydrolysis TPs of BBOEP and BBOEHEP were degraded via O-dealkylation at the phosphate or butoxyethyl moieties of TBOEP, respectively, and DNBP was identified as the hydrolysis TP of TNBP. For TPHP, except for DPHP, monophenyl phosphate (MPHP) was also detected as an addition TP via hydrolysis of DPHP.The high expression level of Cyt P450 1A1/1A2 in β-NF-induced rat liver microsomes and the selective O-dealkylation of ethoxyresorufin by Cyt P450 1A1/1A2 provided an excellent means of selective monitoring of the carrier solution for the presence of compounds possessing affinity for Cyt P450 1A1/1A2.Apr 22, 2020 · In salicin (Figure 27), the acetalic group is metabolically converted to a hydroxyl group in a reaction reminiscent of O-dealkylation, while the hydroxymethyl group is oxidized to the carboxyl group to give salicylic acid. The phenolic hydroxyl group in salicylic acid was suspected to be the cause of stomach irritation and bleeding, and it was ... Dealkylation definition: (organic chemistry) The removal of alkyl groups from a compound.7-Ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation has been used widely as a marker activity for assessing substrate specificities of cytochromes P450 (P450) in liver microsomes of mammals, and extensive studies have shown that in rats and mice the major catalysts are P450 1A1, 1A2, and 2B enzymes. In contrast to find …Nickel complexes have also been reported to be active, although the major goal of this research area so far has been in deoxygenation rather than dealkylation. Nevertheless, alcohols have been reported as products and thus it maybe possible to fine tune reactivity to make hydrogenolysis an option for cleaving simple methyl, ethyl ethers.The P450-catalyzed O-dealkylation reaction sustainably maintained its turnover with the continuous supply of photoregenerated NADPH. Visible light-driven, non-enzymatic NADPH regeneration provides a new route for efficient, sustainable utilization of P450 monooxygenases. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

topics in behavior analysis11 am edt to cstshuang songwickepdeia O dealkylation david trask [email protected] & Mobile Support 1-888-750-3372 Domestic Sales 1-800-221-7905 International Sales 1-800-241-5164 Packages 1-800-800-2846 Representatives 1-800-323-3673 Assistance 1-404-209-4816. O-Triflyl derivative 8, formed from NDMA and triflic anhydride, undergoes N-dealkylation to methylate toluene and give a mixture of xylenes. 35 Curiously, 3,4-dichlorothiophenol with either the O-methylated salt of N-nitrosodiethylamine (6a) or the O-ethylated salt of N-nitrosomethylethylamine (6b) in organic solvent resulted in the same .... nba picks cbs Phosphinic and phosphonic acids are useful intermediates and biologically active compounds which may be prepared from their esters, phosphinates and phosphonates, respectively, by hydrolysis or dealkylation. The hydrolysis may take place both under acidic and basic conditions, but the C-O bond may also be cleaved by trimethylsilyl halides.Pathways included dealkylation, chain oxidation, and dechlorination-hydroxylation. Abstract. The widespread occurrence of atrazine in waters poses potential risk to ecosystem and human health. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms and transformation pathways of atrazine degradation by cobalt catalyzed peroxymonosulfate (Co(II ... 2018 w4 formsthousands of bolts fabric The major pathways for these substrates include oxidation, dealkylation, nitroreduction and hydroxylation. These enzymes account for about 30% of the hepatic and 70% of the gut wall P450 content . This subfamily in humans is controlled by four genes, CYP 3A3, 3A4, 3A5 and 3A7. The CYP3A4 is the most common and abundant cytochrome subfamily in ... steven warreninclusive syllabus New Customers Can Take an Extra 30% off. There are a wide variety of options. O-Dealkylation. Overview; List of Reagents. Boron/Aluminium reagents; Trimethylsilyl iodide; Hydrogenolysis; Oxidation DDQ/CAN; Acids; Thiols/Methionine; Metal Halides; Biocatalysis; Metal –catalysed ether cleavage ; Iodocyclohexane ; Phosphine reagents ; Amine bases /alkoxides ; Hydride reagents; Thermal Methods; Venn DiagramCYP induction was measured by LC/MS/MS based on phenacetin O-dealkylation (CYP1A2), bupropion hydroxylation (CYP2B6) or midazolam 1´-hydroxylation (CYP3A4/5) ...molecules Article Interspecies Variation in NCMN-O-Demethylation in Liver Microsomes from Various Species Ziru Dai 1,y, Guibo Sun 1,y, Jiada Yang 2,y, Jie Hou 3, Ping Zhou 1, Weijie Xie 1, Guangbo Ge 4,*, Xiaobo Sun 1,* and Ling Yang 4 1 Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal …