Fcc 47 cfr part 15. 49.970. ( c) The field strength of the fundamental emission shall not exceed 10,000 microvolts/meter at 3 meters. The emission limit in this paragraph is based on measurement instrumentation employing an average detector. The provisions in § 15.35 for limiting peak emissions apply.

500. 3. ** Except as provided in paragraph (g), fundamental emissions from intentional radiators operating under this section shall not be located in the frequency bands 54–72 MHz, 76–88 MHz, 174–216 MHz or 470–806 MHz. However, operation within these frequency bands is permitted under other sections of this part, e.g., §§ 15.231 and ...

Fcc 47 cfr part 15. TV (47 CFR part 73) 9. Digital TV (UHF and VHF Commercial Stations): 1. Digital TV Construction Permits: 5,100 2. Television Fee Factor.007799 per pop 10. Low Power TV, Class A TV, FM Translator, & TV/FM Booster (47 CFR part 74) 260

Except as shown in paragraph (b) (7) of this section, the maximum emissions outside of the frequency bands of operation shall be attenuated in accordance with the following limits: ( 1) For transmitters operating in the 5.15-5.25 GHz band: All emissions outside of the 5.15-5.35 GHz band shall not exceed an e.i.r.p. of −27 dBm/MHz.

Navigate by entering citations or phrases (eg: 1 CFR 1.1 49 CFR 172.101 Organization and Purpose 1/1.1 Regulation Y FAR). Choosing an item from citations and headings will bring you directly to the content. Choosing an item from full text search results will bring you to those results. Pressing enter in the search box will also bring you to ... 2. This submittal(s) (test report) is intended for FCC ID: 2ACIA-TTBT009 filing to comply with Section 15.107 & 15.109 (FCC Part 15, Subpart B) and Section 15.207, 15.209, 15.249. 3. For more details, please refer to the User’s manual of the EUT. 4. The listed models(N/A)are all the same of the original model(A-1369FC), except for the wiring

Regulations applied : FCC 47 CFR, Part 15 Subpart E. Canada RSS-210 Issue 8 (2010) / RSS-Gen Issue 3 (2010). The testing described in this report has been ...47 CFR Part 15 - PART 15—RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES . CFR ; State Regulations prev | next. Subpart A—General (§§ 15.1 - 15.38) Subpart B—Unintentional Radiators (§§ 15.101 - 15.123) Subpart C—Intentional Radiators (§§ 15.201 - 15.258) Subpart D—Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices (§§ 15.301 - 15.323) ...FCC 47 CFR PART 15 SUBPART E & INDUSTRY CANADA RSS-247 (Class II Permissive Change) TEST REPORT For 802.11a/b/g/n/ac RTL8821AE Combo module Model: RTL8821AE Trade Name: REALTEK Issued to Realtek Semiconductor Corp. No. 2, Innovation Road II, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 300, TaiwanCode of Federal Regulations, Title 47, Part 15 (47 CFR 15) is an oft-quoted part of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules and regulations regarding unlicensed transmissions. It is a part of Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), and regulates everything from spurious emissions to unlicensed low-power broadcasting. Nearly every electronics device sold inside the United States radiates unintentional emissions, and must be reviewed to comply with Part 15 bef…Page 4 of 35 Report No. M2003018-9 47 CFR PART 15, SUBPART B CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE Device: Smart Foal Home Model Numbers: Base Station: 2.0 Repeater: 1.2 Transmitter: 1.9 TRF No.:FCC 15.247/A Page 1 of 41 Report No.: ES151110009E2 Ver.1.0 Access to the World FCC 47 CFR PART 15 SUBPART C CERTIFICATION TEST REPORT FOR BLUETOOTH DTS For Bluetooth Headset MODEL No.: BX1-MBK1, BX1-MWH1, BX1-MPN1, BX1-MGN1 FCC ID: 2AGHBBX1 Trade Mark: BONX REPORT NO: ES151110009E2FCC Part 15B is more specifically Part 15B of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), or FCC Rules and Regulations Title 47. Title 47 sets rules and regulations governing the use of radio, wire, cable, TV and satellite communications in the United States. ... you need to perform FCC Part 15 testing to make sure your device …Regulations applied : FCC 47 CFR, Part 15 Subpart E. Canada RSS-210 Issue 8 (2010) / RSS-Gen Issue 3 (2010). The testing described in this report has been ...24 Apr 2022 ... The FCC's rules and regulations are located in Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). FCC Part 15 Device Classes. The FCC has ...

FCC 47 CFR Part 15, Subpart E . FCC KDB 789033 D2 General UNII Test Procedures New Rules v01r04 . 4.2 MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT USED . 4.2.1 Conducted Emission Test Equipment . EQUIPMENT TYPE MFR : MODEL NUMBER SERIAL NUMBER LASTCAL. DUE CAL. Test Receiver Rohde & Schwarz ESCI 26115-010-0027 May 20, 2018 May 19, …The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations Title 47 Displaying title 47, up to date as of 10/18/2023. Title 47 was last amended 10/17/2023. view historical versions New Agency …(1) Persons with disabilities: In the context of part 15 rules (47 CFR part 15), the term “disability,” with respect to the individual, has the meaning given to it by section 3(2)(A) of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12102(2)(A)), i.e., a physical or …

FCC 47 CFR PART 15 SUBPART B TEST REPORT For CPU Card Model: PCM-9581 Trade Name: ADVANTECH Issued for ... 3/10 meter Open Area Test Sites to perform FCC Part 15/18 measurements 93105, 90471 Japan VCCI 3/10 meter Open Area Test Sites and conducted test sites to perform radiated/conducted

Mar 9, 2023 · The FCC certification procedure requires importers or manufacturers to ensure their products bear an FCC Identifier (FCC ID). The FCC ID consists of a: a. Grantee code – this represents the applicant. b. Product code – this represents the product; the grantee assigns this code. According to 47 CFR Part 2.925, you must ensure that the FCC ...

TRF No.:FCC 15.247/A Page 1 of 62 Report No.: ES180408084W Ver.1.0 . Access to the World . FCC 47 CFR PART 15 SUBPART C CERTIFICATION TEST REPORT . For . SPEAKER BOX MODEL No.: PMA8 FCC ID: 2APJ7 PMA8 Trade Mark : N/A REPORT NO:ES180408084W ISSUE DATE:April 23, 2018 . Prepared for . Parts Express International Inc.%PDF-1.7 %µµµµ 1 0 obj >/Metadata 8443 0 R/ViewerPreferences 8444 0 R>> endobj 2 0 obj > endobj 3 0 obj >/ExtGState >/XObject >/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC ...The tests documented in this report were performed in accordance with ANSI C63.4-2014, FCC CFR 47 Part 2, FCC CFR 47 Part 15. 3. FACILITIES AND ACCREDITATION The test sites and measurement facilities used to collect data are located at 218 Maeyeong-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, 16675, Korea. Line conducted emissions are measured15.1 Scope of this part. 15.3 Definitions. 15.5 General conditions of operation. 15.7 [Reserved] 15.9 Prohibition against eavesdropping. 15.11 Cross reference. 15.13 Incidental radiators. 15.15 General technical requirements. 15.17 Susceptibility to interference. 15.19 Labelling requirements. 15.21 Information to user. 15.23 Home-built devices ...Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this section, the following devices are subject only to the general conditions of operation in §§ 15.5 and 15.29, and are exempt from the specific technical standards and other requirements contained in this part. The operator of the exempted device shall be required to stop operating the device upon a finding by the Commission or its representative ...

FCC 47 CFR PART 15 SUBPART B TEST REPORT For CPU Card Model: PCM-9581 Trade Name: ADVANTECH Issued for ... 3/10 meter Open Area Test Sites to perform FCC Part 15/18 measurements 93105, 90471 Japan VCCI 3/10 meter Open Area Test Sites and conducted test sites to perform radiated/conductedTitle 47. Displaying title 47, up to date as of 10/18/2023. Title 47 was last amended 10/17/2023. New Agency Features: It is now possible to filter search results and recent changes by agency or agencies. It is also possible to subscribe to the eCFR changes from single or multiple agencies. Consult the reader aid pages to learn more.If not, the FCC will dismiss the application. 47 CFR 1.10009(e)(4). ... (47 CFR 1.1107) “Part 97” Amateur Radio License ... The Commission reserves the right to grant or renew …What you’ll find is that Part 15 is broken up into Subparts, which are then delineated by section. These are commonly delineated as 47 CFR § 15.X. (Where X is the section number under Part 15). If you dig into the underlying regulation, what you’ll find is that Part 15 is not the only FCC part number that your product could require testing ... FCC 47 CFR Part 2, Subpart J FCC 47 CFR Part 15, Subpart C DA 00-705 4.2 MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT USED 4.2.1 Conducted Emission Test Equipment EQUIPMENT TYPE MFR MODEL NUMBER SERIAL NUMBER LASTCAL. DUE CAL. Test Receiver Rohde & Schwarz ESCI 26115-010-0027 May 20, 2017 May 19, 2018(a) Certain material is incorporated by reference into this part with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. All approved incorporation by reference (IBR) material is available for inspection at the FCC and the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).View the PDF for 47 CFR Part 15; These links go to the official, published CFR, which is updated annually. As a result, it may not include the most recent changes applied to the CFR. Learn more. 49.970. ( c) The field strength of the fundamental emission shall not exceed 10,000 microvolts/meter at 3 meters. The emission limit in this paragraph is based on measurement instrumentation employing an average detector. The provisions in § 15.35 for limiting peak emissions apply.Operation onboard an aircraft, a ship or a satellite is prohibited. ( b) Manufacturers and users are reminded of the provisions of §§ 15.203 and 15.204. ( c) Emissions from digital circuitry used to enable the operation of the UWB transmitter shall comply with the limits in § 15.209, rather than the limits specified in this subpart, provided ... Rating Action: Moody's downgrades Resolute's CFR to B1; outlook negativeVollständigen Artikel bei Moodys lesen Indices Commodities Currencies StocksThis equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment.Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) Title 47—Telecommunication; CHAPTER I—FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION; SUBCHAPTER A—GENERAL; PART 15—RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES; Subpart B—Unintentional Radiators § 15.101 Equipment authorization of unintentional radiators.Sections 15.33 and 15.35 which specify the frequency range over which radiated emissions are to be measured and the detector functions and other measurement standards apply. ( d) For CB receivers, the field strength of radiated emissions within the frequency range of 25–30 MHz shall not exceed 40 microvolts/meter at a distance of 3 meters. Perform FCC Part 15 Subpart B tests for FCC Marking. 2.3 TEST STANDARDS AND RESULTS Test items and the results are as bellow: EMISSION Standard Item Result Remarks FCC 47 CFR Part 15 Subpart B Conducted PASS Meet Class B limit Radiated PASS Meet Class B limit Note: 1.47 CFR PART 15. October 1, 2020. RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES. Scope of this part. (a) This part sets out the regulations under which an intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator may be operated without an individual license. It also contains the... 47 CFR PART 15. October 1, 2019.FCC 47 CFR PART 15 SUBPART C ANSI C63.10: 2013 TEST REPORT For Wireless ECU Model: 6901WPF Data Applies To: N/A Brand: Boost Auto Test Report Number: TMTN2109000354NR Issued to Boost Auto Parts LLC Boost Auto Parts 2948 Kirk Road.Suite 106, #324 , Aurora,Illinois United States 60502The FCC rules in Part 18 of CFR 47 deal with industrial, scientific, and medical equipment (ISM) that emits electromagnetic energy in the RF spectrum. As with the equipment covered by Part 15, the ISM equipment addressed here is also a potential source of RFI.

Jul 24, 2023 · The conducted and radiated emission limits shown in this part are based on the following, unless otherwise specified in this part: (a) On any frequency or frequencies below or equal to 1000 MHz, the limits shown are based on measuring equipment employing a CISPR quasi-peak detector function and related measurement bandwidths, unless otherwise specified. FCC Part 15B is more specifically Part 15B of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), or FCC Rules and Regulations Title 47. Title 47 sets rules and regulations governing the use of radio, wire, cable, TV and satellite communications in the United States.Title 47 was last amended 10/17/2023. There have been changes in the last two weeks to Title 47. New Agency Features: It is now possible to filter search results and recent changes by agency or agencies. It is also possible to subscribe to the eCFR changes from single or multiple agencies.CFR Part 15 is the section of Title 47 that defines and regulates radiofrequency emissions. These include intentional emissions, such as the radiation of phones and radios that use RF to communicate. However, there’s also unintentional and incidental radiation which are the accidental byproduct of operations. Anything which …§15.405 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A, B, and C of this part apply to unlicensed U-NII devices, except where specific provisions are contained in subpart E. Manufacturers should note that this includes the provisions of §§15.203 and 15.205. (b) The requirements of subpart E apply only to the radio transmitterThe conducted and radiated emission limits shown in this part are based on the following, unless otherwise specified in this part: (a) On any frequency or frequencies below or equal to 1000 MHz, the limits shown are based on measuring equipment employing a CISPR quasi-peak detector function and related measurement bandwidths, unless otherwise specified.

Radio control radio service. Pursuant to 47 U.S.C. 307(e)(3), the term “radio control radio service” means any radio service or other specific classification of radio stations used primarily for wireless telecommand and/or wireless telemetry purposes, for which the FCC has determined that it serves the public interest, convenience and necessity to authorize by rule the operation of radio ...This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.For mobile devices not exempt by § 1.1307 (b) (3) (i) (C) at distances from 20 centimeters to 40 centimeters and frequencies from 0.3 GHz to 6 GHz, evaluation of compliance with the exposure limits in § 1.1310 of this chapter is necessary if the ERP of the device is greater than ERP 20cm in the formula below. If the ERP of a single RF source ...Radio Frequency Devices. 15.1 – 15.717. Subpart B. Unintentional Radiators. 15.101 – 15.123. § 15.101. Equipment authorization of unintentional radiators. § 15.102. CPU boards and power supplies used in personal computers. FCC ID: E5XKB5137A Report No: 71218003-D Page 1 / 22 FCC 47 CFR PART 15 SUBPART B TEST REPORT for Keyboard MODEL: 5137A Test Report Number: 71218003-D Issued for BEHAVIOR TECH COMPUTER CORP. 20F-B, No. 98, Sec. 1, Sintai 5th Rd., Sijhih City, Taipei County 22102, Taiwan (R.O.C.) Issued By: Compliance Certification Services Inc. Linkuo …47 CFR PART 15 October 1, 2021 RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Scope of this part. (a) This part sets out the regulations under which an intentional, unintentional, or incidental …Title 47, part 15 of the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. '; Toggle navigation eCFR. Home; Title 47 PART 15. CFR › Title 47 › Volume 1 › Chapter I › Subchapter A › Part 15. Part 15 - Radio Frequency Devices. PART 15 - RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES . Authority: 47 U.S.C. 154, 302a, 303, 304, 307, 336, 544a, and 549.For all other frequency hopping systems in the 2400–2483.5 MHz band: 0.125 watts. ( 2) For frequency hopping systems operating in the 902–928 MHz band: 1 watt for systems employing at least 50 hopping channels; and, 0.25 watts for systems employing less than 50 hopping channels, but at least 25 hopping channels, as permitted under paragraph ... 47 CFR Part 15 - PART 15—RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES . CFR ; State Regulations prev | next. Subpart A—General (§§ 15.1 - 15.38) Subpart B—Unintentional Radiators (§§ 15.101 - 15.123) Subpart C—Intentional Radiators (§§ 15.201 - 15.258) Subpart D—Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices (§§ 15.301 - 15.323) ...The technical requirements are generally specified in the applicable FCC rule parts and the administrative rules are specified in 47 CFR part 2, subpart J. Step 2 – Equipment Authorization Procedures. If a device is subject to FCC rules, determine the specific type of equipment authorization that applies to the device.1 See 47 CFR §§ 15.19 and 15.105. 2 See 47 CFR §§ 2.906 et seq. 3 See 47 CFR §§ 2.907 et seq. 4 FCC 96-208, docket no. 95-19, 11 FCC Rcd 17928, “28. Decision. As proposed, we are replacing the existing FCC ... respectively meet the requirements of this rule part. 9 FCC 17-93, docket no. 15-170, para 16. “Given the widespread and ...(iv) The modular transmitter must comply with the antenna and transmission system requirements of §§ 15.203, 15.204(b) and 15.204(c). The antenna must either be permanently attached or employ a “unique” antenna coupler (at all connections between the module and the antenna, including the cable).Rating Action: Moody's Assigns B3 to Nathans Proposed Notes; B3 CFR AffirmedVollständigen Artikel bei Moodys lesen Vollständigen Artikel bei Moodys lesen Indices Commodities Currencies StocksPART 73—RADIO BROADCAST SERVICE. 1. The authority citation for part 73 continues to read as follows: Authority: 47 U.S.C. 154, 155, 301, 303, 307, 309, 310, 334, 336, 339. 2. In § 73.622, in paragraph (j), amend the Table of TV Allotments, under Tennessee, by revising the entry for Knoxville to read as follows: Table of TV allotments. In ...Nationwide interoperability channels. §§ 90.20 (d) (80) 90.531 (b) (1) 90.617 (a) (1) ). Any Part 90 public safety eligible entity holding a Part 90 license may operate hand-held and vehicular mobile units on these channels without needing a separate authorization. 47 CFR PART 15 October 1, 2021 RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Scope of this part. (a) This part sets out the regulations under which an intentional, unintentional, or incidental …This subpart sets out the regulations for Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U–NII) devices operating in the 5.15–5.35 GHz, 5.47–5.895 GHz bands, and 5.925–7.125 GHz bands. [ 86 FR 23295, May 3, 2021]FCC Part 15 is an emission standard (conductive, radiated) for radio frequency devices (intentional and unintentional radiators). FCC Part 15 consists of several subparts. The most applicable subpart of FCC Part 15 is subpart B, because it applies to virtually all digital electronics (exempted devices of FCC 15 subpart B can be found in 47 CFR ... 47 CFR PART 15. October 1, 2018. RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES. Scope of this part. (a) This part sets out the regulations under which an intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator may be operated without an individual license. It also contains the... 47 CFR PART 15. October 1, 2017. RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES.

CNF means “cost and freight” or “cost net freight” and a CNF price includes the cost of shipping to the buyer. CNF is a term used in the export business and may also be indicated as C&F or CFR.

1 See 47 CFR §§ 15.19 and 15.105. 2 See 47 CFR §§ 2.906 et seq. 3 See 47 CFR §§ 2.907 et seq. 4 FCC 96-208, docket no. 95-19, 11 FCC Rcd 17928, “28. Decision. As proposed, we are replacing the existing FCC

13.36–13.41. 1 Until February 1, 1999, this restricted band shall be 0.490–0.510 MHz. 2 Above 38.6. ( b) Except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, the field strength of emissions appearing within these frequency bands shall not exceed the limits shown in § 15.209. At frequencies equal to or less than 1000 MHz ...Report No.: WH-FCC-E19072413-1 Page1/23 FCC 47 CFR PART 15 SUBPART B TEST REPORT FOR Innovative Input Device Model : Orbital2 Issued to BRAIN MAGIC Inc. 3F TBS Akebonobashi Building, 15-53 Funamachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-0006, Japan Issued by WH Technology Corp. XizhiPage 4 of 35 Report No. M2003018-9 47 CFR PART 15, SUBPART B CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE Device: Smart Foal Home Model Numbers: Base Station: 2.0 Repeater: 1.2 Transmitter: 1.9The FCC’s rules and regulations are located in Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The official rules are published and maintained by the Government Printing Office (GPO) in the Federal Register . § 15.5 General conditions of operation. (a) Persons operating intentional or unintentional radiators shall not be deemed to have any vested or recognizable right to continued use of any given frequency by virtue of prior registration or certification of equipment, or, for power line carrier systems , on the basis of prior notification of use ...Report No.: WH-FCC-E19072413-1 Page1/23 FCC 47 CFR PART 15 SUBPART B TEST REPORT FOR Innovative Input Device Model : Orbital2 Issued to BRAIN MAGIC Inc. 3F TBS Akebonobashi Building, 15-53 Funamachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-0006, Japan Issued by WH Technology Corp. Xizhi%PDF-1.7 %µµµµ 1 0 obj >/Metadata 8443 0 R/ViewerPreferences 8444 0 R>> endobj 2 0 obj > endobj 3 0 obj >/ExtGState >/XObject >/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC ...Except as shown in paragraph (b) (7) of this section, the maximum emissions outside of the frequency bands of operation shall be attenuated in accordance with the following limits: ( 1) For transmitters operating in the 5.15-5.25 GHz band: All emissions outside of the 5.15-5.35 GHz band shall not exceed an e.i.r.p. of −27 dBm/MHz.

graph kncross country athleticsdoctorate in medical technologypro football reference players who played for both teams Fcc 47 cfr part 15 test of early grammatical impairment [email protected] & Mobile Support 1-888-750-4810 Domestic Sales 1-800-221-8947 International Sales 1-800-241-4322 Packages 1-800-800-3538 Representatives 1-800-323-6611 Assistance 1-404-209-9186. (a) In addition to the requirements in part 2 of this chapter, a device subject to certification, or Supplier's Declaration of Conformity shall be labeled as follows: (1) Receivers associated with the operation of a licensed radio service, e.g., FM broadcast under part 73 of this chapter, land mobile operation under part 90 of this chapter, etc., shall bear the following statement in a .... o u softball score today When transmitting, each amateur station must have a control operator. The control operator must be a person: ( a) For whom an amateur operator/primary station license grant appears on the ULS consolidated licensee database, or. ( b) Who is authorized for alien reciprocal operation by § 97.107 of this part.1 See 47 CFR §§ 15.19 and 15.105. 2 See 47 CFR §§ 2.906 et seq. 3 See 47 CFR §§ 2.907 et seq. 4 FCC 96-208, docket no. 95-19, 11 FCC Rcd 17928, “28. Decision. As proposed, we are replacing the existing FCC craigslist modesto pets for freecity of kingman kansas made available to the FCC upon re-quest. PART 15—RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Subpart A—General Sec. 15.1 Scope of this part. ... keting of part 15 devices. ... \SGML\220200.XXX 220200. 754 §15.3 47 CFR Ch. I (10-1-10 Edition) (b) The operation of an intentional or unintentional radiator that is not in accordance with the regulations in this design management masters degreeks teaching license lookup New Customers Can Take an Extra 30% off. There are a wide variety of options. PART 73—RADIO BROADCAST SERVICE. 1. The authority citation for part 73 continues to read as follows: Authority: 47 U.S.C. 154, 155, 301, 303, 307, 309, 310, 334, 336, 339. 2. In § 73.622, in paragraph (j), amend the Table of TV Allotments, under Tennessee, by revising the entry for Knoxville to read as follows: Table of TV allotments. In ...This device complies with part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation. ( 4) Where a device is constructed in two or more sections connected ...